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An analysis on Comparison of energy intake with energy expenditure

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Data analysis
Comparison of energy intake with energy expenditure 

Energy intake measured against energy expenditure


Figure 4.1. Mean value of energy intake vs energy expenditure

From the above figure 4.1, the mean energy intake was lower than actual energy expenditure for the first to a third day. On the fourth day, the mean energy was found to be higher than expenditure. On the fifth day, both mean energy consumption and expenditure were found to be the same. The sixth and seventh day recorded a mean energy consumption value that is lower than expenditure. Overall, in 5 days out of the entire recorded 7 days, mean energy intake was lower than mean energy consumption. In essence, the indication presented here is a direct positive correlation between intake and expenditure volume regarding energy. That is to say that the more energy a participant consumes, the higher the expenditure. This is understood as energy has accompanied price value, reflecting the fact that the more energy one consumes, the higher the cost that the person will need to bear. However, on day 4, it can be noted that there was more energy intake at a reduced cost. This can be a result of market-related factors that influenced lower prices for the sources of energy. For instance, if the cost of fuel decreased by 10% due to promo packages, the respondents may access more power at the same price. On the fifth day, energy intake has the same value as energy expenditure, while respondents had to incur more expenses on the 6th day than usual. It validates the understanding that market derivatives can easily influence energy intake as changes in market features will affect overall change in energy derivatives.

Predictability of daily energy intake
Figure 4.2: predictability of daily energy intake

As highlighted in the earlier section of this research, there are different sources of energy. However, the above figure indicates that the mean value for energy intake cannot be used to predict overall daily and current intake. This is because there are varied factors that might influence the energy intake process. What one consumes today might not necessarily be what the person will finish tomorrow. Therefore, it is expected that there will be a difference between the influences of micronutrients on overall energy intake. That is to say; all micronutrients will have a significant role in determining the volume of energy intake. Furthermore, this reflects the need for continued maintenance of a balanced diet (in which all micronutrients) are considered necessary due to their significant individual roles.

Influence of energy intake on weight gain


Figure 4.3: Influence of energy balance on weight gain

Energy balance has a strong influence on weight chance, as indicated in the review of the literature. The understanding presented is that the higher the source of energy one has, the higher the person’s ability to indulge in activities that can reduce overall weight gain in people looking to reduce their weight. Additionally, a higher intake of energy without necessary exercise can also increase weight gain. For instance, if the respondents consume a higher volume of carbohydrates without measures needed to curb weight, they will likely be overweight (experiencing an increase in weight).  As illustrated in figure (4.3) above, the mean weight shows that the higher the energy intake, the higher the weight gain. This implies that energy intake is directly correlated with weight gain. Overall, this is understandable as energy intake that is not utilised to produce significant physical work will be stored in the body. Under continued storage, this energy will begin to reflect an increase in body size. Micro-nutrients such as fat, as recorded in this study, directly influence weight gain. The majority of the excess weight gain issues, such as obesity, directly link to the volume of fat consumed. 

The pattern of energy intake and expenditure


Figure 4.4: energy intake and expenditure flow

One would expect that the flow of energy shouldn’t have any direct pattern under a typical setting, but the above figure indicates a flow pattern. For the 20 days study, the 11th to 10th day is a direct reflection of the 1st to 10th day in terms of the flow pattern. For instance, there was an increase in both expenditure and energy intake from the 1st to the 4th day (which was also the same case from the 11th to the 4th day). The energy intake and consumption declined from the 5th to the 6th day before stabilising on the 7th day (this is also the case from the 15th to 17th day). The sharp increase on the 8th day was immediately followed by a sharp decline on the 9th day and an increase on the 10th day (which is also the same case from the 19th to the 20th day). Thus, it is obvious that the flow is more of a cycle. After the 10th day, the flow repeats precisely in the same pattern but not necessarily with the same volume. In order to reference the need for maintaining a balanced diet, these findings indicate that respondents consider it vital to maintain a balanced diet as they have a scheduled energy intake pattern that is constantly repeated after every 10 days. Effectively, it becomes easy to link findings with other established understandings as the micro-nutrients consumed at any given date can now be easily transmitted in the form of data related to their influence on weight gain and other variables loaded in this research. 

The pattern of micronutrient intakes

As documented in figure (4.5) below, there is a steady pattern of micro-nutrient intake similar to the recorded pattern of energy intake. In essence, the actual process within the first 10 days was replicated on the 1st to 20th day. It could be said that the respondents are on a certain nutrient intake diet as they have a specific energy intake volume for certain days. Additionally, the pattern of micronutrient intake can also be used to reference desired outcomes in terms of energy supplies. For instance, if the consumers want to acquire more energy, it becomes clear that they should consume more micronutrients in the process.


Figure 4.5: Pattern of nutrient intake

Correlation between specific micro-nutrients and energy intake


Figure 4.6: Correlation between micronutrients and energy intake

From the above figure 4.6, there is no direct correlation between micro-nutrient intakes and energy intake. This implies that no micro-nutrient is solely responsible for the volume of energy intake. This is understandable as respondents have varied sources of micronutrients. It is more viable to establish that these different sources of micro-nutrients work together to determine the volume of intake. This is varied because while carbohydrate is a direct source of energy, protein and fat can also be broken down in the absence of carbohydrate to generate the volume of energy desired by the respondents. Thus, it would be incorrect to link a single micro-nutrient as a source of energy – further illustrating why the outcomes vary. 

Difference between duration of sleep reported by participants and by watch


Table 4.1: Difference between participants and watch record of sleep duration

There is a slight difference between the recorded time of sleep by the participants and watch. Generally, the recorded time seems to be higher with watches in some cases and higher by the participants. This variation does create a certain level of difficulty concerning understanding the best measure for sleep duration. However, it can also reflect that the participants might not be aware of how long they have been sleeping in some cases. 

Correlation of sleep with energy intake and expenditure


Figure 4.7: correlation between sleep duration and energy

From the above figure 5.7, there is a correlation between sleep and energy intake or expenditure. In essence, it implies that the lower the rest a participant gets, the higher the energy intake and expenditure, and vice versa. This is possible because during sleep, the body is not working, and as such, energy is not be utilised (which demands the lesser need for energy intake) and vice versa. Thus, sleep does determine the volume of energy intake and expenditure. However, it should be noted that certain parts of the body (for instance, the brain and heart) are functioning while asleep, which implies that little volume of energy (when compared with being awake) is utilised during sleep.


Discussions and findings

In any given setting, it is essential that people consistently meet the energy demand of their body. The overall importance is based on the understanding that the higher one can meet the energy demand required by the body, the more productive the person will likely be. Thus, this was loaded into the research to determine factors that influence energy intake. A number of discoveries were made in the process. 

First, there is a correlation between energy intake and expenditure. This implies that the more intake a participant records for energy, the higher the expenses recorded for the same power. This is understandable as one is expected to incur the cost of energy micro-nutrients supplied. For instance, if a participant wants more energy, the person will have to consume more micronutrients, which comes with its associated costs. This reflects the fact that the higher the consumption, the higher the expenses. 

While the causal factor for the experienced increase in expenditure was easily predictable, the research indicates that it is impossible to predict which micronutrients have the most significant influence on energy intake. That is to say, none of the micro-nutrients recorded in this case was found to be directly correlated with energy expenses or indicated. Overall, this implies that all the micronutrients have a significant and unique role in supplying the participants with the desired volume of energy. 

Weight gain is probably the most documented issue when it comes to consumer health. This reflects that more people are constantly working towards reducing their weight as weight loss is now considered crucial for good health. From this research, it was also discovered that energy intake does correlate with weight gain or loss. The correlation is that the higher the energy intake and expenditure, the higher the weight gain. In essence, if one wants to gain more weight, the person increases energy intake and vice versa. 

Another discovery is that energy intake has a pattern flow with expenditure. That is to say that during certain days in the first 10 days, the flow of energy intake and expenditure had the same pattern compared to the next 10 days (11th to 20th day). Thus, the participants seem to be following a scheduled intake pattern, which can also be used to measure their desired volume of energy. There are countless reasons behind the decision of participants to consume more energy during certain days – such as a desire to increase output, which will effectively require the consumption of more power from the participants. 

Just in the case of energy intake, the micronutrients have a similar pattern because it increases with a subsequent increase in energy intake and expenditure. That is to say that if one consumes more micro-nutrients, the person will acquire more energy in the process. 

The reported volume of sleep was also measured by both watch and the participants, with the findings compared. The comparison discovered that there are variations between the conclusions recorded from the participants and the eye. These variations seemed insignificant at some point, yet they turned out to be very significant at another point. The reflected understanding is that the difference could be due to the respondent’s poor sleep process measure. This is to say that when they wake up from sleep, they might not be well-positioned to present an exact estimate of how long they have been sleeping as their memory will not be working effectively during sleep. 

Finally, the case of sleep as measured against energy intake was performed. In the analysis, it was discovered that sleep is negatively correlated with energy intake. In essence, the more sleep a participant gets, the lower the energy intake. This is clear because, during sleep, the participant will not need any energy as the body will be resting, which also implies that energy expenditure will be reduced in the process. 

Overall, this study has successfully established certain unique aspects of energy regarding how they are taken, why they are taken, and their effects on consumers’ wallets. In summary, several outcomes seem to be more revealing. One of those is that the higher the volume of energy consumed, the more the expenses incurred and the weight gained. 


Conclusion and recommendations

This study’s purpose was identified from the onset to understand energy inflow in terms of consumption and expenditure. It was defined that irrespective of the outcomes, there is a great need for energy intake in all individuals. This is because energy is required to undertake the daily activities that surround an individual. Whether it is going to work, running, doing house chores, or even sleeping, energy is required at varying degrees. Inevitably, it would be impossible for someone to survive without a constant supply of energy. 

As such, the primary research was developed in line with such a view to analysing better factors that influence energy intake and expenditure. Several micronutrients were loaded into the study as – carbohydrates, protein and fat. From the analysis, it is clear that energy flow does have a direct positive correlation with expenditure. This implies that the more energy supply one demands, the more expenses the person will incur. If one cannot meet the expected costs, it becomes impossible for one to get access to the desired energy volume. This is best reflected in the case of malnutrition, as is common among the more flawed society due to their inability to meet the monetary value for their desired energy consumption. However, energy expenditure and intake follow the same pattern (in the sense that the higher the input, the higher the spending, the micro-nutrient does not follow the same energy intake pattern. This implies that all micro-nutrients work together (have a vital role to play) when supplying the respondents with the desired volume of energy. Therefore, this clearly indicates that one must maintain a balanced diet to have a healthier outcome from the energy intake process. 

In the modern world, being health conscious has risen to high demand. With the increased permeability of illness and other health issues, people are now taking extra care to maintain good health. One of such care is by maintaining reasonable weight control. The food intake process is one of the significant ways that weight control can be maintained. From the research, the finding indicates that if one wants to maintain a good weight, then the person must be willing to consume a lesser amount of energy and regulate overall micro-nutrient intake. This is because findings indicate that higher energy intake results in higher weight gain and vice versa. 

In conclusion, it will be stated that energy intake is a continuous process that is not inevitable. However, the volume of energy supply one has does depend on several factors. First, it depends on the ability of the person to afford the desired book of energy. One must maintain a great balanced supply of micro-nutrients as it will help to affect the desired outcome in terms of the volume of energy being supplied. 

Considering that the varied micro-nutrients have a significant role to play when it comes to maintaining a good deal of energy supply, it is recommended that these micro-nutrients (in their right volume) should be incorporated into the daily mean design in order to guarantee a constant supplier of energy required for the day to day activities. However, it is essential that one also considers the need for quality energy supply and not allow reduced weight to impact the overall nutrition process. What one eats or intakes should reflect the job or activities undertaken. In essence, if there is a need for a high energy intake, it would be in the best of interest to ensure that such is the case. 



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